WildAgain Wildlife Rehabilitation, Inc.
Success Using Homeopathy with Wildlife Trauma
Shirley J. Casey, BA, MBA
The use of homeopathic medicines to treat acute trauma is growing rapidly with a wide range of wildlife species. Applying classical homeopathy has helped many animals recover more quickly and be released back to the wild faster than with conventional modalities alone. Following a brief overview of wildlife rehabilitation, a sample of successful classical homeopathy cases with wild mammals and birds will be described.
About Wildlife Rehabilitation
Wildlife rehabilitators provide temporary care for injured, orphaned, or otherwise distressed native wildlife so that healthy animals may be released back to their native habitat. Over 10,000 people in North America hold the state (or provincial) and/or federal permits to rehabilitate wildlife, including birds, mammals, and herptiles. Most of the wildlife rehabilitators operate home-based rehabilitation facilities, utilizing parts of their homes and yards that may be separated from other family activities. Rehabilitators generally fund these operations themselves, or work as part of a non-profit organization, and less than 1% are paid for their time rehabilitating wildlife. None-the-less, wildlife rehabilitation is a growing profession and has increasing professional standards, professional associations, publications, and educational opportunities.
Rehabilitation activities include a wide range of tasks. Rehabilitators spend considerable time talking with the public to prevent human-wildlife conflicts, humanely resolving problems that have already occurred, and arranging for the public to surrender wild animals that need qualified care. Rehabilitators admit wildlife to care, collect information about the reasons why the animal is delivered for rehabilitation (e.g., nest fell down, hit by vehicle, flew into window, attacked by pet). They conduct a basic assessment of the animal and initiate first aid care based on standard protocols (e.g., place in a secure container, provide heat and quiet). They acquire, prepare appropriate diets for the species, age, and condition of the animal. They must use correct feeding methods, as well as feed the necessary amount at the appropriate frequency.
They must have a variety of safe and effective cages and housing for the different species, ages and conditions that may arrive. They need adequate space for appropriate quarantining, as well as to meet the needs of the species (e.g., not having prey species near predators, allowing flock species to be near others of their kind). They must regularly clean their facilities. They need to keep a variety of supplies on hand, such as heat sources, water bowls, feeding syringes, nets, gloves, and so forth. Rehabilitators must release them back to the appropriate habitat when the animals are capable of surviving independently.
Most rehabilitators have training in wild animal husbandry but are not veterinarians. As such rehabilitators work closely with veterinarians to ensure that the animal gets appropriate medical care. Veterinarians conduct more involved diagnostic and treatment protocols, such as radiographs and surgery. In many cases, veterinarians instruct rehabilitators to conduct a basic assessment and initiate first aid protocols (e.g., heat, fluids, cleaning minor wounds), as well as to administer medications on their instruction. Rehabilitators work with the veterinarian to make euthanasia decisions. While some conditions may seem minor for a domestic animal that is cared for in a home, the condition may prevent the animal from living independently in the wild, thus prompting a euthanasia decision.
Wildlife Admitted to Rehabilitation
Some of the wild animals admitted to rehabilitation are healthy, such as those simply separated from their parent(s) by a person who felt they needed rescue, such as rabbits, fawns and seals. In such cases, the rehabilitator may be able to follow established protocols to reunite or renest the animal. If timing or circumstances do not allow such a reunion, the rehabilitator may have to raise the kidnapped orphan until it can be released.
Most of the wild animals admitted to rehabilitation, however, have some type of acute medical problem: such as shock, dehydration, and bruising. While a few of these conditions are minor, recent research into the relative frequency of occurrence of twenty-eight major categories of conditions presenting in wildlife cases is shown in Figure 1 at the end of this paper. The relative frequency of occurrence of specific conditions seen in wildlife is shown in Figures 2-4, also at the end of this paper.
Reasons Rehabilitators Consider Homeopathy
Like many others seeking help for animals, wildlife rehabilitators want to provide high quality care. They want the animal to achieve a high level of health. They want to reduce invasive and costly procedures that result in high stress for animals already in stress by being in captivity and handled. They want to reduce immediate side-effects (e.g., diarrhea after use of antibiotics) as well as possible negative long term consequences (e.g. joint problems in migratory birds after use of corticosteriods or impacts on a predator that eats the animal when it returns to the food chain). They also want to accelerate the animal’s recovery and release back to the wild. Some rehabilitators have expressed concerns about the use of allopathic medicines with wildlife due to the difficulty with dosages (e.g., a mountain lion, or tiny 2 gram hummingbird), the uncertainty of the medications effectiveness with wild species, and the desire to reduce or eliminate problems related to antibiotic resistance.
In the last decade, wildlife rehabilitators have become increasingly interested in holistic modalities. Some rehabilitators have gone to training programs and conferences, read publications, purchased supplies, and begun working with holistic veterinarians. With assistance of holistic veterinarians, wildlife rehabilitators have used acupuncture, chiropractic, botanical medicine, nutritional supplements, flower essences, and homeopathy on a wide range of species.
A growing number of rehabilitators have found homeopathy to be a very attractive modality for wildlife for a variety of reasons. It has been used effectively and safely with humans and animals around the world for over 200 years. It can treat diverse physical, emotional, and mental conditions – including some that are either difficult or unable to be treated allopathically. Homeopathy helps the animal heal itself, rather than suppressing or palliating symptoms. Plus, by following the principle of the minimum dose, the animal does not need frequent capture and handling. Homeopathy can be administered relatively easily to wildlife. Reduced capture and handling reduces stress on the animal and reduces risk. Homeopathic medicines are generally easily accessible and relatively inexpensive, which is especially attractive to low budget, non-profit organizations.
As a result, an increasing number of wildlife rehabilitators are turning to homeopathy. Over 600 wildlife rehabilitators have attended one and two day seminars on the use of homeopathy for first aid and trauma care with wildlife since 1997. Some of these programs have been in conjunction with the national wildlife rehabilitation associations’ annual conferences. Articles and papers on the subject have been published in local, state, and national rehabilitation publications, as well as in veterinary and homeopathic journals.
Many rehabilitators have reported positive results with using homeopathy. The following provides some case examples where homeopathy was used effectively with a variety of wildlife species.
CASE A: Terrified Raven
A veterinarian found a box with a young raven (Corvus corax) on his doorstep when he arrived at the clinic. On examination, he found that the raven had a broken left wing. After pinning the bone, he called a newly licensed wildlife rehabilitator and asked him to rehabilitate the bird. When the rehabilitator picked it up, the veterinarian said to keep the bird fairly quiet until the wing was healed.
The rehabilitator confined the raven to a very small cage (the bird was barely able to stand and could not extend his good wing). The cage was placed alone in a room with no other corvids. No cage furniture, toys, or other distractions were provided for the bird. Almost immediately, the bird refused to eat. Worried that the bird would starve, the rehabilitator tube-fed it several times a day. The bird became increasingly aggressive.
When the bird was returned to the clinic, the veterinarian discovered that the bird had removed the pin from his own wing. The wing was healed, but the bird was very underweight and obviously stressed. The veterinarian arranged immediate transport to a rehabilitator experienced with corvids. When the raven was delivered, the experienced rehabilitator immediately recognized the bird’s extreme terror (rapid breathing, closed eyes). She had a working relationship with a holistic veterinarian who had instructed her to follow basic homeopathic principles, repertorize and use common remedies for truama. If she needed help, the veterinarian was willing to consult. She quickly repertorized the case, considering the injury, terror, refusal to eat, accelerated breathing, and closed eyes which she felt was more a mental condition than physical trauma. The rubrics used were:
Generalities, injuries, blows, falls, bruises, general
Mind, fear, general, death of
Stomach, appetite, wanting
She read the remedies in Phatak’s Materia Medicia and picked Aconitum napellus since it was extraordinary for severe fear and also included the other symptoms. She gave the raven a single dose of Aconitum 1m.
Within 30 minutes he was breathing more calmly, his eyes were normal, and he was looking around at the other birds. She placed bowls of food and water in his cage, as well as a variety of toys and other ‘distractions’. A short time later he began eagerly eating. He continued to eat well, put on weight, and showed the normal curiosity, mischief, and activity of his species. He was placed with other ravens in an outdoor conditioning cage to build his flight skills. After developing normal flight, he was released with other ravens.
CASE B: Hummingbird with Head Trauma
While a woman was watching hummingbirds chase each other near her hummingbird feeder, a hummingbird crashed into the window and fell to the deck. A quick check found the bird unconscious. She called a local rehabilitator who said to place the bird in a small box with air holes in the top and a crushed paper towel on the bottom, and place the box on a hot water bottle. If the bird had not recovered when the woman checked it in a half hour, it should be delivered to the rehabilitator.
An hour after the bird hit the window, the rescuer delivered the bird to the rehabilitator. It was an adult male Anna’s hummingbird (Calypte anna). The bird’s eyes were closed, but he opened them briefly when picked up. He seemed dazed. The bird was limp and showed signs of shock. The rehabilitator immediately offered some prepared liquid hummingbird diet since hummingbirds rapid metabolism requires frequent calories to maintain their temperature and energy. The bird ate willingly.
The rehabilitator had seen many similar cases. She had repertorized this type of trauma many times and read the homeopathic medicines in materia medica. She had also discussed this type case with her homeopathic veterinarian who agreed that she should immediately administer Arnica 1m in cases of severe trauma resulting from falls, blows, injuries, and shock from injuries.
The rehabilitator administered a single oral dose of Arnica 1m that was dissolved in spring water by placing a drop in the beak from a 1cc syringe. She then placed the bird on paper towel shaped in a “donut” (ring) in a basket on a low heat source and left it to rest.
When the rehabilitator checked the bird in 30 minutes, he had gotten off the donut and on the perch, but was unsteady, dull, and had not taken any food from the syringe attached to the side of the basket. She offered him a syringe and he ate willingly. The rehabilitator continued to offer him food every 30 minutes for several hours and he began to eat on his own. His eyes were open, but he continued to sit still and look a bit dazed. Since there was no further improvement after 6 hours from the initial dose of Arnica 1m, she repeated it. Within another hour, he was looking more alert and turning his head when approached.
The next day there was no further change so the rehabilitator repertorized again, emphasizing mental injuries from injuries to the head and the mental dullness. She selected Natrum sulphuricum as the closest match to his condition.
Her homeopathic veterinarian had previously told the rehabilitator to proceed with giving remedies in cases where she had high confidence, but to feel free to consult with the veterinarian if there were questions. The rehabilitator administered the Natrum sulphuricum 1m. Within two hours he was reacting by fluttering to the far end of the perch. His reactions continued to improve and by the afternoon he was flying effectively in a flight cage. The bird was released back to where he was found the next day.
CASE C: Squirrel with Aspiration
Four days after a lactating female fox squirrel (Scurius niger) was found dead after being hit by a car, her three offspring climbed down the tree. They were delivered to a rehabilitator who found them healthy except for minor dehydration and emaciation. She hydrated them and put them on a regular feeding schedule with the appropriate diet.
Ten days later, she noticed that one male had audible and difficult breathing about one hour after she had fed them formula. When she took him out of the cage to examine him, she heard loud, rattling sounds in his chest. His breathing had sounded normal when she had just fed him. She had fed him slowly and carefully, and had not noticed any problems at the time, but this certainly sounded like he had aspirated the squirrel milk replacer and had fluid in his lungs. Since she was handling him, she went ahead and stimulated him. To her surprise, he defecated well-formed white feces instead of the more normal golden colored feces normal for a squirrel on milk replacer diet! Prior to this his stool and breathing had been normal. His temperature and activity were normal.
She placed the squirrel back on heat with his siblings. She was particularly concerned since she had seen previous cases of aspiration pneumonia that had deteriorated quickly and had been fatal, even if the animal had been placed on antibiotics. She was also concerned about the stool color. A recent homeopathy class had emphasized considering the whole being and all the symptoms together.
In reading the top remedies in a materia medica, she was glad to find a single remedy, Phosphorus addressed the respiration problem, white stool, and sudden onset. She selected Phosphorus and called a homeopathic veterinarian to confirm her decision. The veterinarian agreed and said to use a 200c potency.
She dissolved the Phosphorus 200c in spring water and gave it to the squirrel with a small syringe. Within 2 hours his respiration sounded completely normal. His stool was back to normal color within 24 hours. The rest of the rehabilitation for him and his siblings was normal. After they were weaned and showed the appropriate skills, they were released.
CASE D: Beaver with Prolapse
A juvenile beaver (Castor canadensis) was delivered to a rehabilitator after being found on a river bank two days after a flash flood. The beaver was dehydrated, emaciated, and had terribly matted fur. The rehabilitator’s first thought was that that level of dehydration and emaciation seemed to be more than was likely in just two days separation from his mother. No injuries were apparent on examination, but there was some dried stool around his rectum. The rehabilitator placed the beaver in a quiet cage that was placed over a heating pad turned on warm. She administered Lactated Ringer Solution orally. As the beaver became hydrated, he started having loose stools. A fecal examination showed a severe case of Giardia. The beaver was given a dewormer to reduce the Giardia. After being hydrated, the beaver was given the appropriate formula, amount of food, and at the correct frequency. He seemed to stablize and his stool started to become more normal. However, the rehabilitator noticed that he seemed to be somewhat unsteady when standing, as if dizzy.
A few days later, on Saturday, the beaver looked better but at times still had diarrhea with a terrible odor and was unsteady when standing. The rehabilitator placed him in a shallow tank to allow him some exercise swimming. As he swam, she noticed that the beaver had prolapsed his rectum (it protruded 2”). She removed him from the water and covered the prolapse with calendula salve to keep it moist. She then called the local emergency clinic. The veterinarian on call was unwilling to treat wildlife but said do what she could until to a veterinarian willing to treat wildlife arrived the next morning.
The rehabilitator was concerned that without prompt action that the beaver would deteriorate. Plus, surgically repairing prolapsed rectums was often unsuccessful. She decided to repertorize the case and try a homeopathic medicine.
She read the remedies in her materia medica. When reading Podophyllum she remembered that at times he rolled his head back and forth, and seemed worse with motion. She contacted a local homeopath and got some Podophyllum 200c. She administered it at 11pm. The beaver was kept in his small cage on heat overnight. At 3am, she checked on the beaver. The rectum was only protruding 1 inch! She put more calendula salve on it and hoped it would continue to retract. When she checked it at 6am, it had not retracted any further. She gave another dose of the Podophyllum 200c. By 9am, the rectum was no longer protruding! She contacted the veterinarian on duty and he said that she did not need to bring the beaver in unless the problem returned. The diarrhea and vertigo also stopped that same day.
The rehabilitator kept the beaver for four more months in order to grow to an appropriate age and size for him to be able to survive on his own. No other problems occurred during his rehabilitation. He was successfully released near a colony of beavers.
CASE E: Raccoon with Neurological Symptoms
After hearing noises from the vent-a-hood in her kitchen for five days, a homeowner arranged for a contractor to open the vent. He removed two juvenile raccoons (Procyon lotor). One was dead; the other was extremely dehydrated and in shock. The rescuer met the rehabilitator at a veterinary clinic willing to treat wildlife.
The dehydrated raccoon was given Lactated Ringer Solution subcutaneously and orally. While drinking the Lactated Ringer Solution she stopped breathing. The veterinarian quickly revived the raccoon and said he did not feel that there had been permanent damage. The rehabilitator took the raccoon to her facility and continued to hydrate her. After she was hydrated, she was placed on the appropriate formula and continued to develop normally. The rehabilitator followed standard protocols related to disease and parasites.
On the 10th day, the raccoon began stiffening her front legs during feeding and held her ankles. While her whole body would shake at times, her head twitched regularly. The rehabilitator contacted the veterinarian who said that it could be neurological damage. The veterinarian instructed the rehabilitator to administer Dexamethasone, but he was not optimistic about the raccoon’s recovery. The rehabilitator gave Dexamethasone for several days, but the symptoms worsened. The veterinarian told the rehabilitator that euthanasia should be considered.
At that time, the rehabilitator decided to contact a homeopath. She described symptoms in detail, including the fear and grief that she felt were involved, and the case was repertorized.
After reading the descriptions in the materia medica, they selected Ignatia. While they wanted to use a higher potency, the highest potency the rehabilitator could purchase quickly was 30c. She dissolved the Ignatia 30c and gave it to the raccoon with a syringe. By the next feeding the raccoon started moving her legs forward. However, she was still shaking. The homeopathic medicine was repeated 2 times. She recovered fully within 2 days and showed no problems during the rest of her rehabilitation. She was released at the normal time for her species.
CASE F: Pigeon with Lacerations
A woman delivered a fledgling pigeon (Columba livia) to a rehabilitator. The rescuer said she had picked up the injured pigeon when she found him on the ground at the auto repair shop. A cat had been sitting within inches of the bird, staring at it. She believed the cat was responsible for the fledgling’s injuries. A prompt call to the veterinarian had resulted in her taking the bird to the rehabilitator.
A quick look by the rehabilitator revealed lacerations and superficial punctures on his back, sides, and base of tail that were consistent with cat attack. Since the bird was of the age where he would have left the nest on his own and there were no signs of bruising, she did not think he had fallen. The bird was in shock (limp, breathing rapidly, eyes closed) which could have resulted from the injury as well fear as from being attacked by the cat. The rehabilitator’s extensive experience with repertorizing similar cat attacks resulted in her immediately administering Aconite 1m.
She put the bird on heat in a small quiet cage and left him. When she returned 30 minutes later, he was much calmer and he did not show signs of shock. She gently and thoroughly cleaned the wounds with a warm, dilute herbal calendula wash. As soon as she put the calendula wash on his wounds he seemed to relax.
While infection was not yet apparent in the wounds, she was well aware that cat teeth and claws are a reservoir of bacteria, increasing the probability that the wounds would become infected. Her veterinarian had recommended wildlife injured by cats be given something to prevent the development of infection. While her veterinarian had offered antibiotics, the rehabilitator preferred using homeopathic remedies because the unwanted affects of antibiotics (gastrointestinal upset, decrease of appetite, and chance of antibiotic resistance).
When the bird was stabilized and resting more comfortably, the rehabilitator repertorized the case, including
Generalities, wounds, bites, poisonous animals
Generalities, wounds, painful
And while the wound was not yet showing infection, she expected that, so she also read Generalities, wounds, suppurating and Generalities, abscesses, suppurating, general.
Like she had many times before, she read the remedies with the highest rating. Unfortunately, the remedies did not seem to be a good match for the situation. She turned to the description of homeopathic Gunpowder prepared by Clarke. He had written:
“The great sphere of action of gunpowder is in cases of septic suppuration - or, in other words - of wounds that have become poisoned with the germs of putrefaction. … But Gunpowder my [may] also be used as a prophylactic.
That is to say, it will not only cure septic suppuration when present, but it will afford such protection to the organism against harmful germs, that wounds will be less likely to become septic in one who is under its influence….
Now the great point about Gunpowder is that it has a broad and clear indication that hardly anyone can miss - blood - poisoning. …
The poison quickly finds its way into the blood - boils, carbuncles, eruptions, abscesses, or other manifestations appear, showing unmistakably that the blood has been poisoned. To all these conditions Gunpowder acts as an antidote.”
She selected Gunpowder due to its effectiveness with exposure to severe infection, even if symptoms had not yet appeared. She administered a single dose of homeopathic Gunpowder 200c. Within 24-36 hours, the wounds granulated in. The scabs were minimal and did not seem to bother the bird since he did not peck at them which was more typical for wounds that were uncomfortable. The scabs and skin around the wounds stayed supple and did not dry out as scabs often did. The wounds healed extremely fast and new feathers started growing back within 3 days. No infection appeared. The bird recovered uneventfully. The pigeon was released when he was self-feeding and able to fly effectively, about 3 weeks from initial presentation.
Wildlife rehabilitators are finding homeopathic medicine to be highly successful with a variety of cases. Some of these cases would have been difficult to treat with allopathic medicine, such as fear, head trauma with extremely small and fragile creatures, and prolapsed rectum. Other cases may have been treatable with allopathic medicine, but the rehabilitators were reluctant to use them due to other considerations. Using homeopathy with wildlife can be very challenging since many aspects are different from treating humans or domesticated animals. As helpful as homeopathy can be, rehabilitating wildlife requires much more to provide proper care and release of the animal (knowledge of the species, good diets and husbandry, suitable cages and environment, appropriate permits (state, federal, etc.), and effective veterinary support).
As these cases demonstrate, the use of homeopathy with wildlife can be very effective. This is beneficial for the wild animal that recovers faster, more completely and is able to be released to the wild earlier. There are also benefits for the holistic veterinarian who works with wildlife cases since the rapid and complete recovery may be a pleasant contrast to the chronic cases that appear in many veterinary practices. The author hopes that the holistic veterinary community will continue providing consultation and help to rehabilitators and wildlife.
The author expresses sincere appreciation to the many rehabilitators and veterinarians who work with wildlife and provided information for this paper, particularly Therese Bush (CA), Nancy Kelly (CO) and Bridget Sparks (CO).
Blackmer, R.; A. Casey; and S. Casey. 1997. Beyond Conventional Allopathic Medicine: Options Considered by Wildlife Rehabilitators, Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Winter: 7-13.
Blackmer, R.; J. Facinelli; A. Casey; and S. Casey. 1997. Exploring the Concept of the Minimum Dose: Wildlife Rehabilitators Consider Homeopathy, Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Spring: 14-21.
Blackmer, R., A. Casey; S. Casey, J. Facinelli, B. Sparks. 1998. Homeopathy and Wildlife: First Aid and Trauma Care: Seminar Manual. Self-published, Evergreen, CO.
Blackmer, R.; A. Casey; and S. Casey. 1999. Considering Homeopathic First Aid for Wildlife. NWRA Quarterly Journal, Autumn: 14-16.
Boericke, W. 1927. Materia Medica with Repertory. Boericke and Tafel, CA.
Casey, A. 2000. A Survey of Conditions Seen in Wildlife Admitted to Rehabilitation. Wildlife Rehabilitation: Vol.18. NWRA, St. Cloud, MN: 143-160.
Casey, S. 2002. Success Using Homeopathy with Wildlife Trauma: Conference Proceedings 2002. American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association.
Casey, S. and A. Casey. 2000. Homeopathy and Wildlife Rehabilitation. Homeopathy Today. National Center for Homeopathy, Alexandria, VA: 24-25.
Casey, S. 2002. Homeopathy With Wildlife is Different. Academy of Veterinary Homeopathy: Conference Proceedings 2002. Academy of Veterinary Homeopathy. Miami Beach, FL.
Casey, S. and A. Casey. 2001. Homeopathic Success in Treating Poisoned Wildlife. Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Assoc., July, Vol. 20, No. 3., pp. 37-42.
Casey, S. and T. Bush. 2000. Homeopathic First Aid with a Sample of Wildlife Cases. Wildlife Rehabilitation: Vol.18. NWRA, St. Cloud, MN: 67-74.
Castro, M. 1990. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY.
Clarke, J. H. 1915. Gunpowder as a War Remedy. Jain Publishers, Delhi, India.
Chapman, J. and G. Feldhamer. 1992. Wild Mammals of North America. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
Facinelli, J.; A. Casey; and S. Casey. 1997. Finding and Using Holistic Veterinary Services. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation. Winter, pp. 14-19.
Kent, J. T. 1945. Repertory of the Homeopathic Materia Medica. Homeopathic Publications, India.
MacRepertory. Kent Homeopathic Associates.
Miller, E. 2000. Minimum Standards for Wildlife Rehabilitation, 3rd edition. National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, St. Cloud, MN.
Murphy, R. 1995. Lotus Materia Medica. Lotus Star Academy, Pagosa Springs, CO.
Phatak, S. R. 1993. Materia Medica of Homeopathic Medicine. B. Jain Publishers, Kishan Kunj, Delhi.
Sibley, D. 2001. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. Chanticleer Press, New York, NY.
Sibley, D. 2000. The Sibley Guide to Birds. Chanticleer Press, New York, NY.
Vermeulen, F. 1997. Concordant Materia Medica. Emryss vy Publishers, Haarlem, Netherlands.
Van Zandvoort, Roger. 1994. The Complete Repertory. Institute for Research in Homeopathic Information and Symptomatology, Leidschendam, The Netherlands.
WildAgain Wildlife Rehabilitation. Seminars on the Use of Homeopathy with Wildlife. Information at www.Ewildagain.org and 303-670-3309, or contact the author.
Types of Conditions Seen Most Frequently in Wildlife
A recent research study with wildlife rehabilitators in 29 states identified the most frequently seen conditions presenting in wildlife cases. Forty-three respondents (a 20% response rate) were asked to indicate which of two hundred and four individual conditions, that were listed in the survey, they observed most frequently in wildlife admitted for care over a three year period. Respondents were from a wide range of types and sizes of facilities, with two treating over 5,000 animals per year, and six treating less than 100 animals per year. These Figures indicate the relative frequency of occurrence for all mammalian and avian species, as well as for all wildlife species. Of particular interest, especially from a homeopathic perspective, is the high incidence of emotional states in wild mammals (Figure 3) as reported by the respondents.
2002. © WildAgain Wildlife Rehabilitation, Inc. All Rights Reserved unless